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Stalin: From Patriot to Oppressor

Written by Animus AniKor Saxcian


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History of the Time Period

At the time of Iosif's youth, Alexander III was Czar of the Empire of Russia. After seeing his reformist father killed by an assassin's bomb, he ruled the empire with an iron fist. The Czars of the House of Romanov reigned over a expansive nation, stretching from the Pacific Ocean in the east to the Baltic Sea in the west, encompassing a sixth of the worlds land mass in its periphery. Although, this land was rapidly industrializing, and vaunted an imposing army and cultural spirit consisting of writers like, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy, and composers of the ranks of Tchaikovsky, the Empire of Russia was still far from neglecting its archaic origins. For centuries Russia was ruled by the Golden Horse of the Mongol Tartar since in 1502 when the Crimean Tartar struck the final blow to the Mongolians. Soon after, the age of Imperial Russia began (Empire of Russia). Russia went through hard times in Imperial Russia, from the tyrannical rule of Ivan the terrible, to the war with Napoleon. This allowed little time for advances in Russian society. It was just 1860, 19 years before the birth of Iosif, that peasants were freed from serfdom. Even though these people were manumitted, chosen autocrats governed them, without even a semblance of democratic or parliamentary rule. These somewhat archaic beliefs contradicted with the rapidly modernizing side of the Russian Empire. This caused much indignation among the intellectual class of Russia. The violent ideologies of these people were aimed at a change in the current structure of government. This uprising of the intellectuals was the beginning of a new era in Russia.

The most appealing of these ideals was Marxism (aka, "scientific socialism" or "Communism"), named after Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher who claimed to have unlocked the mechanisms of history. Marxism annunciated that warfare was determined by human history. Marx asserted, in his and Friedrich Engel's 1848 tract the Communist Manifesto, that in an industrial society, the triumph of the bourgeoisie inevitably led to the rise of a proletariat. The proletariat would grow ever more impecunious, as the wealth began to be convened in bourgeois grasps. These imbalance of wealth and power would lead to a revolution, and the establishment of the .dictator of the proletariat.. Marx's utopia would abolish all national governments and religion, both of which Marx referred to as tools of bourgeois oppression, and class distinctions. At the end of his highly commended work he concluded with an adequate call to revolt:

"Let the ruling classes tremble at a communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!" (Marx and Engel)

With these words the Revolution had in a way taken wings in Russia. Marxists began to unite, making not just a horde of people but an army. It is interesting though, that the Marxists beliefs were so strong. Scientists and historians both had discredited the Communist Manifesto, for it being to simplistic, and already disproved by history itself. These statements didn.t affect the communist ideals. Soon Even a pious boy like Iosif would be affected by this ideal's allure.


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